Board in a car one -Petrol internal combustion engine or Diesel-, a additional battery Besides the and one or more conventional electric motors. Final score: hybrid cars. by functioning and configuration, we can talk about different types of hybrid vehicles, but before you should bear in mind that with this type of vehicle you still have to go to the gas station to refueling, since the autonomy offered in one hundred percent electric mode will not allow you to make long trips (Up to 60 km in the best of plug-in hybrids).
- Series hybrids
In the serial hybrid cars, he motor or electric motors are driving the vehicle, as the internal combustion engine has no mechanical connection to the wheels. The great purpose of petrol or diesel engine is move a generator so that it generates electricity for storage in the battery and it nurtures the engine / electric motors. There is some confusion when defining whether the electric-called extended-range Chevrolet Volt and the Opel Ampera and are or series hybrids, although recently various sources General Motors They have admitted that the internal combustion engine can move in very specific moments wheels of the vehicle.
- Parallel hybrids
In this type of hybrid vehicles, the main power of the internal combustion engine, that is what moves the vehicle in most cases. In certain times, and output and acceleration, the electric motor provides its power, in the first case to circulate at very low speed and very efficiently circulate and in the second case as extra support energy to the heat engine. Honda Insight (it already was discontinued), CR-Z and Civic Hybrid are the most representative examples of parallel hybrids.
- hybrid combined
Such vehicles, with the third generation the Toyota Prius and its system Full Hybrid Sinergy Drive (The rest of the Toyota and Lexus) as main standards, combine parallel hybrid technology, as well as the particularities of series hybrids. In these cars, the electric motor operates alone at low speeds, provided certain distance and power is not exceeded in the battery is sufficient; while, at high speed, the heat engine and electric work simultaneously. Also, the heat engine combines the functions of vehicle propulsion and power generator, which provides power to the electric motor.
- Hybrid plug-in or plug
A plug-in hybrid (in English words 'Plug-in hybrid') or PHEV for its acronym in English (of words Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) Is a hybrid whose battery They can be recharged plugging a car external power source (Electrical home network, public charging outlets or own wallbox who have already spent years developing some car manufacturers themselves in collaboration with companies specializing in electrical components). This is the main difference that distinguishes Plug-in hybrid conventional hybrid. Their battery usually they have much greater capacity that of non-plug-in hybrid, so in actual use they can circulate more kilometers in purely electric mode, offering therefore a much lower average cost of fuel. Some current examples of plug-in hybrids: Audi A3 e-tron, VW Golf GTE and Volvo V60 Plug in.
- Batteries: material, capacity, load ... many challenges
He material of which are made the battery and his Storage capacity They are two of the challenges that are facing both car brands such as the various component manufacturers. The most common materials in the first hybrid cars was the nickel metal hydride, but increasingly they are spreading more energy accumulators higher capacity, such as battery lithium ion, polymer lithium iron phosphate and lithium LiFePO4.
He place in which Batteries must be It is another element in which they are working engineering teams automotive brands. In the first hybrid vehicles, such batteries were placed in the trunk, so that remained useful luggage space. In recent times, its location has changed and have begun to be installed under the trunk lid and elsewhere as in a lower area the floor of the passenger compartment (resource, which in turn, affects more optimal distribution weights while the center of gravity is lowered).
Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid cars
As advantage they bring the hybrid cars, must mention the lower fuel consumption, lower levels of CO2 emissions and a more rational use of energy thanks to systems like stop / start and stop-start engine and regenerative braking (A system that captures the kinetic energy generated when braking or deceleration to transform then into electrical energy). This means that at low speeds or at standstill (traffic lights, for example), the demand for energy from the combustion engine is usually zero or very low. In circumstances acceleration (need extra energy), it is when you really work at full capacity the electric motor by the heat. In short, the kind of energy that suits used at all times.
disadvantages, the highest price compared to non-hybrid remains the main pitfall of such cars. However, to compensate for the price difference, different governments certain countries (United States, for example) give grants and subsidies to encourage the use of such cars. In the case of Spain, he Movele plan It includes several grants to purchase, intended only for pure electric and plug-in hybrids (see list Movele cars included in the Plan).
Another inconvenience hybrid vehicles It is all the extra weight of installing a conventional vehicle all electronics, a generator, a battery and an electric motor or motors. To offset this burden, they are trying to remove 'g' with lighter materials but a high degree of strength, durability and safety. On the other hand, installing these components implies aerodynamic tweaks, hence most of the hybrids have a 'Special' design. Also, when charging the batteries of plug-in hybrids, these vehicles often have as great barrier the same as pure electric, as they have to face a very bad road and actual infrastructure that makes them truly viable and increasingly numerous .
Finally, both hybrids Like the pure electric have another disadvantage: their silent at low speeds, which results in a greater chance of outrages in urban areas. For this reason, several car brands have thought of devising a artificial sound system to warn of their presence to pedestrians.